Cultural Resonance: Participation, Audiences and Interface
Helen Sloan
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1. Among the extensive writing on the democratising potential of new technology see Sadie Plant, 1997

2. The most renowned VR piece is Osmose / Char Davies / 1995 which was supported by the company SoftImage

3. There are a whole number of survey texts available eg.  Stephen Wilson, 2001 / Charlie Gere, 2002 / Lev Manovitch, 2001 / Frank Popper, 1993 / Rachel Greene, 2004 / Lucy Kimbell (ed.), 2004. The diversity of content in these and other texts reflects some of the changes in publishing that have been facilitated by technology. There is no one authoritative body describing media arts and as a consequence there are a whole variety of approaches to the area of practice and research. Media arts represents differing approaches and theoretical stances as well as interdiscipliniarity – it is important to highlight and recognise this. It is this uncertainty in media arts that allows such rich experimentation and presentation of new ideas.

4. See Audiorom’s soundscape work and CDROM, 1998 and the work of Someth;ng, an artist group originating from Ravensbourne College formed in 2004

5. Credited to Dick Higgins whose original 'Intermedia' piece was written in 1965 and published in Feb. 1966 in Something Else Newsletter.

6. See David Surman quoting David Cage from Edge in his chapter, 'Gaming, Uncanny Realism and Technical Demonstration'

7. Martin Rieser (2002) looks at the poetics of interactivity from the perspective of content rather than through a formal analysis of the interface.

8. Although Paul Sermon and Toshio Iwai were taking advantage of new technology in the 1990s, they were not the first to introduce collective works in Twentieth Century. Artists such as Stephen Willats with MetaFilter (1973-5) and John Lansdown with Ecogame (1969-70) introduced collective works in the 1960s and 1970s through technology, and at the same time low tech projects such as Fluxus relied on collective participation in some cases.

9. See Furtherfield / Hive Network / / and The Ludic Society

10. Second Life / You tube / Myspace / World of Warcraft are among the most quoted.

11. See DEAF07 (Dutch Electronic Arts Festival)

12. Prix Ars Electronica introduced a new category of Hybrid Art partly to distinguish Interactive Art from other contexts in 2007

13. Mark Paterson, University of Bristol; Kristina Andersen,; and Simone Gumtau, University of Portsmouth are researching and practising in this area

14. See the work of the Tangible Media Group, MIT

15. FACT are restaging works from their Video-Positive Festival 1989-97 in 2007


Benjamin, Walter (2002) / Passagenwerk or The Arcades Project / unfinished work 1927-40 / trans.
Howard Eiland & Kevin McLaughlin / Harvard: Harvard University Press
Gere, Charlie (2002) / Digital Culture / London: Reaktion Books
Greene, Rachel (2004) / Internet Art / London: Thames and Hudson
Kimbell, Lucy(ed) (2004) / New Media Art, Practice and Context in the UK, 1994 – 2004 / Arts Council England / London: Cornerhouse Publications
Manovich, Lev (2001) / The Language of New Media / Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
Plant, Sadie (1997) / Zeros and Ones: Digital Women and the New Technoculture / London: Fourth Estate
Popper, Frank (1993) / Art of the Electronic Age / London: Thames and Hudson
Rieser, Martin (2002) / 'The Poetics of Interactivity: The Uncertainty Principle' in The New Screen Media: Cinema/Art/Narrative / Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wilson, Stephen (2001) / Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology / Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press

Jeffery Shaw 
Harwood/ Mongrel 
Graham Ellard & Stephen Johnstone
Tessa Eliott & Jonathan Jones Morris 
Mark Hansen & Ben Rubin

Helen Sloan
has worked as a curator, researcher, writer, editor and producer in media arts and culture since late 1980s. She was appointed as Director of SCAN in 2003, a networked organisation and creative development agency for media arts in the South of England working on media arts projects and strategic initiatives with artists, arts organisations, academic institutions and broader aspects of the public realm. Helen has worked both freelance and as a curator at organisations such as Camerawork, FACT, ICA and Site Gallery as well as directing festivals such as Across Two Cultures in Newcastle 1996 (an early conference on the overlapping practice of creative thinking in arts and science) and Metapod, Birmingham 2001-2. Current areas of interest and curatorial work include the points of intersection of science and culture, immersive environments, assistive technologies, and wearable and soft technologies.