1. Choreographers of contemporary conceptual dance have already explored the consequences: JŽr™me Bel's The Last Performance (1999), followed by Xavier Le RoyÕs Self-Unfinished (1999), and thenProject (2005), a combinatory of ball games Ð soccer, handball, cornerball Ð played according to idiosyncratic sets of rules that are imposed upon the players or have been chosen by them, and perhaps are even open to modification (which is a contradiction in terms but happens at times).
2. A third manual that could be mentioned here is by Steven de Belder and Theo van Rompay (2006) which describes P.A.R.T.S, the experimental school for contemporary dance which, in the ten years of its existence since 1995, has challenged our more traditional assumptions about craft, technical training, and composition, helping to bring forth a generation of choreographers and conceptual artists now working in every part of Europe.
3. Cf. Massimo Canevacci, (2005: 64-69); see also Olivier Dyens (2005: 45-49).
4. For example, shooting on location in Iceland for Viking Shoppers and WarStars, and in Australia for BackStrikesEmpires.
5. Formerly the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television.
6. David Rokeby, Tom Demeyer, Miller Puckette, Mark Coniglio, Frieder Weiss, Atonio Camurri & InfoMus Lab.
7. For his collaboration on Trisha BrownÕs How Long Does The Subject Linger On The Edge Of The VolumeÉ (2005) and his concepts of agent-based artificial intelligence, see Marc Downie (2005)
8. BrownÕs How Long Does the Subject Linger on the Edge of the VolumeÉ (2005) combines six dancers and live motion capture responding to movement in real-time, with Downie, Eshkar and KaiserÕs computer operations projecting Ôabstract agentsÕ or diagrams on a front scrim and modifying Curtis Bahn's music score.
9. SentientSpace1.0 was initiated at the motion capture lab during Monaco Dance Forum, December 2002, and underwent significant development during the UK-based DigiLounge Lab in early 2004.
10. The E.A.T. experiments in the 1960s by Billy KlŸver, Bob Rauschenberg and the Judson Church performers are a great historical precedent and an exception. See Scott deLahunta (2002a: 66-87); (2002b: 105-114) & (2003: 72-79).
11. Char Davies explains: ÔI think of virtual space as a spatiotemporal ÔarenaÕ wherein mental models or abstract constructs of the world can be given virtual embodiment (visual and aural) in three dimensions and be animated through time. Most significantly, these can then be kinesthetically explored by others...Õ See ÔVirtual SpaceÕ (2004).
12. At the 2002 Motion Capture Tech Laboratory (ÔReal Time and Networked: Sharing the BodyÕ) at Monaco Dance Forum, for example, the systems used in the workshop were two Gypsy exoskeletons, the Polhemus Tratracker, and the Motion Captor optical system provided by Animazoo. The software was off the shelf programs (e.g. Kaydara Filmbox) and customized code. See Scott deLahunta (2003: 72-79)
13. Cf. Johannes Birringer (2005: 147-73). Computer scientists borrow the musical term ÔorchestrationÕ from Brenda LaurelÕs Computers as Theatre (1993), an early attempt at explaining interactive experiences in terms of the methods in which actors and technical crew monitor and intervene in ongoing interactions in order to subtly shape an unfolding experience.
14. In a posting to the dance-tech list, Curators suggest that Ôaesthetic and conceptual concerns regarding vocabulary (emergent technique) and dance as 'switch de/activation' has lead to exploration of alternate interfaces. We can observe this 'shift' in the rapid decline of dance-tech & electroacoustic music technology (music-tech) collaborations involving direct, gestural interfaces during the 1990's.Õ
15. The Third International Conference of Enactive Interfaces, held at Montpellier (2006), was dedicated to research on ÔEnaction and Complexity.Õ
16. Perversely, Damiano ColacitoÕs objects flee from the territories of virtual reality and materialise themselves in our world.
17. Others have called Machinima a new form of independent filmmaking, treating the viewpoint the game gives them as a camera (Ôshooting film in a Virtual RealityÕ) and recording and editing that viewpoint into new story-demos or narrative shorts.
18. For a good contextualization of the interactive vocabularies developed from ClarkÕs and OiticicaÕs participatory creations of the 1960s and 1970s, see Simone Osthoff (1997). For a detailed analysis of Lucy OrtaÕs work,see Bradley Quinn (2003: 155-86).
de Belder, Steven & van Rompay, Theo (eds) (2006) / P.A.R.T.S Ð Documenting Ten Years of Contemporary Dance Education / Brussels: P.A.R.T.S
Birringer, Johannes (2005) / 'User Testing for Participatory Artworks' in International Journal of Performance Arts & Digital Media 1:2
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Doctoral thesis: MIT Media Lab
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Osthoff, Simone (1997) / ÔLygia Clark and HŽlio Oiticica: A Legacy of Interactivity and Participation for a Telematic Future' in Leonardo 30: 4
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Tofts, Darren (2005) / Interzone: Media Arts in Australia / Victoria: Craftsman House
Johannes Birringer is a choreographer and artistic director of AlienNation Co., a multimedia ensemble based in Houston. He has created numerous dance-theatre works, digital media installations and site-specific performances in collaboration with artists in Europe, North America, Latin America and China. He is the author of several books, including Theatre, Theory, Postmodernism (1989), Media and Performance: along the border (1998), Performance on the Edge: transformations of culture (2000), and Dance Technologies: Digital Performance in the 21st Century (forthcoming). He now directs the Interaktionslabor Gšttelborn in Germany and is Professor of Performance Technologies at Brunel University, London, where he directs the DAP-Lab