My game in your gallery? Professional game developers as artists
Katherine Neil

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Notes:

1. Specifically, by the Diverse Worlds Project at Bond University in Australia. See: Brand, Jeffrey (2003) ‘Don’t criticize the effects of video games on kids, exploit them!’, Bond University ePublications.

2. Games are important because game industry turnover is bigger than that of Hollywood.’ Sadly, this is usually the line used by mainstream journalists in place of venturing into an intelligent discussion about the medium itself and its relationship to contemporary culture.

3. The blossoming of the ‘casual games’ industry since 2004, however, has seen a minor renaissance of bedroom coding. The casual games space, which took off in 2004 on the web and PC downloads and is now moving onto the consoles. While very simple and derivative games dominate in this space, the market has opened up a renaissance for smaller, developer controlled teams and projects that one day may merge with development for the ‘core’ games market.

4. Espen Aarseth argues that ‘2001 can be seen as the Year One of Computer Game Studies as an emerging, viable, international, academic field,’ in his editorial for the International Journal of Computer Game Research, Volume 1, Issue 1. July 2001

5. For a critique of the industry’s business model, see: Costikyan, Greg (2006) / ‘Death to the Game Industry, Long Live Games’ / The Escapist; and Lanning, Lorne, interviewed by Matt Martin, ‘Odd Man Out’, GamesIndustry.biz,

6. See Van Zelfden, N. Evan (2006) ‘Critical Issues Facing Indie Game Developers’, The Escapist, 13 Jul 2006. Note that ‘independent developers’ in this context is used to signify development studios that are not owned by a publisher.

7. For examples, see the games Escape From Woomera, Super Columbine Massacre RPG, and 911 Survivor.

8. See Askwith, Ivan (2003) ‘A Matrix in every medium’, Salon.com; See Waters, Darren (2005) ‘Spielberg takes film magic to EA’, BBC News Online. See Waters, Darren (2006) ‘Director Jackson signs Xbox deal’, BBC NEWS Online, 2006

9. see Chuck Klosterman (2006) Esquire Magazine, July; and Johnson, Joel (2006) ‘Klosterman: There are no game critics’, Kotaku, June

10. In 2006 David Rejeski proposed that there be state support for games based on the public broadcasting model. See: David Rejeski (2006) ‘Why we need a corporation for public gaming’

11. Cultural coming of age when game developers stood in defiance of the censorshop of Super Columbine Massacre RPG at Slamdance. Consciousness was raised and the double-standard applied to film vs game was exposed.

12. Inspired by the ‘The New Journalism’ movement of the 1970s.

13. This comparison between games and the cultural elevation of the novel, film, TV and comic forms is often raised in discussions about games as art, but I believe this is simplistic when the differing historical, economic and technological contexts for these media not taken into account. For instance, the novel form was adopted relatively early by the intelligentsia as a rapidly accessible vehicle for serious content while the moral panic around novels was only just beginning; television was rescued in its infancy by state intervention in the form of public broadcasting initiatives; and comics have, arguably, never truly enjoyed mainstream acceptance as an art form by wider society (with the possible exceptions of French and Japanese cultures), despite notable works in the medium.



References:

Adams, Ernest (2006) / ‘The Designer’s Notebook: Where’s our Merchant Ivory ?’/ GamaSutra / August 7th
Adams, Ernest (2006) / ‘Revenge of the Highbrow Games’ / GamaSutra
Anonymous UK developer (2003) Fatbabies.com
Anonymous game designers (2000) / ‘The Scratchware Manifesto’
Askwith, Ivan (2003) / ‘A Matrix in every medium’ / Salon.com
Au, Wagner James (2002) / ‘Playing Games with Free Speech’ / Salon.com
Brand, Jeffrey (2003) / ‘Don’t criticize the effects of video games on kids, exploit them!’ / Bond University ePublications
Bizarre Creations (2007)
Chaos Engine, 2006
Clapham, Mark (2006) / ‘Local Heroes’ / GamesIndustry.biz / August 25
Cook, Dan (2006) / ‘Ze Story Snobs’ / Lost Garden
Costikyan, Greg (2005) / ‘Death to the Game Industry, Long Live Games’ / The Escapist
Costikyan, Greg (2005) / ‘Burning Down the House’ panel speech / Game Developers’ Conference, March
Crawford, Chris (1996) / ‘Computer Games are Dead’ / Interactive Entertainment Design Vol. 9
Crawford, Chris (n.d.) / ‘The Education of a Game Designer
Crawford, Chris (1984) / The Art of Computer Game Design / McGraw-Hill Osborne
Ebert, Roger (2005) / RogerEbert.com / November 27
Games Are Art (2007)
Gillen, Kieron (2004) / ‘The New Games Journalism’ / March 24
Hill, Jason (2006) / ‘Good game but is it art?’ / Sydney Morning Herald
Hoffman, Erin (2004)/ ‘EA: The Human Story’
IGDA (International Game Developers’ Association) (2005) / ‘IGDA Quality of Life White Paper’
Ion Storm (2000) / Deus Ex /Edios Interactive
Jaffe, David (2006) / ‘MTV Game Makers Roundtable’ / MTV Overdrive/ May 2006
Jenkins, Henry (2006) / ‘The Independent Games Movement (Part Three): Behind the Scenes at Indiecade’ / October 31
Jenkins, Henry (2005) / ‘Games, the New Lively Art,’ in Jeffrey Goldstein (ed.) / Handbook for Video Game Studies / Cambridge: MIT Press
Johnson, Joel (2006) / ‘Klosterman: There are no game critics’ / Kotaku / June 23
Kant, Immanuel (1790) / The Critique of Judgement / trans. James Creed Meredith
Klosterman, Chuck (2006) / Esquire Magazine, July
Kroll, Jack (2000) / ‘’Emotion Engine’? I don’t think so’ / Newsweek / March
Moledina, Jamie (2004) / ‘The Anti-Communist Manifesto’ / Gamasutra, May 20
Morris, Chris (2005) / ‘Nintendo: Innovation is Dying’ /CNNMoney, June 3
MTV Game Makers Roundtable (2006) / MTV Overdrive, May
Lanning, Lorne (2006) / Interviewed by Matt Martin / ‘Odd Man Out’, GamesIndustry.biz
Lanning, Lorne (2006) / interviewed by Matt Martin / ‘Siege Mentality’ / GamesIndustry.biz
Pfeifer, Borut, (2005) / ‘Soapbox: The Rise of the Auteur & the Return of Indie Development’ / GamaSutra /Game Developer Magazine
Rejeski, David (2006) ‘Why we need a corporation for public gaming’ / Woodrow Wilson Centre / August 25
Shacknews (2006) / ‘Uwe Boll Challenges His Critics ‘To Put Up Or Shut Up!’’ / June 13
Simons, Iain & Newman, James (2004) / Difficult Questions About Videogames / Suppose Partners
Snyder, Tess (2006) / ‘Are Electronic Games Art’ / Jeux sans Frontieres / June 2006
Spector, Warren (2006) / ‘Indie game devs: ‘forget it’’ / Red Herring
Van Zelfden, N. Evan (2006) / ‘Critical Issues Facing Indie Game Developers’, The Escapist, 13 July
Waters, Darren (2005) / ‘Spielberg takes film magic to EA’ / BBC News Online
Waters, Darren (2006) / ‘Director Jackson signs Xbox deal’ / BBC NEWS Online
Wilson, Gareth (2006) / (cited by Darren Waters) / ‘Games industry ‘burns out talent’' / BBC News Online
Wright, Will (2005) quoted in Ellie Gibson / ‘Thinking Big’ / GamesIndusty.biz / September 5


Biography:
Katharine Neil
is a New Zealand born game developer, with an academic music background. She has worked in the game industry since 1998 as a sound designer and programmer in Australia and France. Her non-professional activities have included co-founding Australia's annual independent game developers' conference Free Play, and under the pseudonym ‘Kipper’, initiating and directing the Escape From Woomera project in 2003 - a somewhat notorious collaboration between a journalist and a game development team to create a videogame based on the mandatory detention of asylum seekers in Australia. As an occasional writer, Katharine has aired opinions on the political and cultural aspects of videogames.